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上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

文章导读

肿瘤是现在人们身体结构中比较常见的一些身体问题。肿瘤的种类有很多很多的是人们日常生活中不太熟知的。例如上纵隔肿瘤。上纵隔肿瘤是一种比较常见的肿瘤,主要出现在人们的胸部,它其中比较常见的就是胸腺瘤。这对人们的身体状况来说,造成了很大的影响。那么当自己患有了上纵隔肿瘤之后,应该采取什么样的办法来解决呢?

上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

一、什么是上纵膈肿瘤

上纵膈肿瘤有许多种形式,但最常见的便是胸腺瘤。

在成年人的全部纵膈肿瘤中,胸腺瘤约占20%~40%。胸腺瘤来源于胸腺上皮,可是不包含来源于淋巴细胞、神经内分泌细胞、生殖细胞和脂肪组织的肿瘤。胸腺瘤在绝大多数的情况下位于前纵隔,并且附着于心包,只有少数的胸腺瘤能够发生在纵隔以外的部位,如胸膜和心包膜等部位。

上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

二、胸腺瘤症状

1、 大约30%~60%的胸腺瘤患者无明显症状,只是在偶然的胸片检查中被发现得了胸腺瘤。有症状的患者的临床表现主要为有瘤体侵犯或压迫邻近纵隔结构引起的胸部局部症状,包括:咳嗽、胸痛、喘鸣、反复发作的呼吸道感染、呼吸困难、吞咽困难、声音嘶哑等症状。与此同时,全身症状有发热、体重下降、疲劳、食欲减退、盗汗等。

2、 胸腺瘤有其独特的表现,具有合并多种副瘤综合征的表现:最常见的是重症肌无力;红细胞发育不良;多肌炎;系统性红斑狼疮;类风湿关节炎;甲状腺炎等多种疾病。经过某些研究发现,胸腺瘤的患者能够得第二原发肿瘤的几率较其他人更高。

上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

三、胸腺瘤注意事项

胸腺瘤与其他肿瘤不同,如果完全根据组织学,无法确定胸腺瘤的良恶性质,因此,胸腺瘤的良恶性需根据有无包膜浸润、周围器官侵犯或远处转移来判定。目前认为所有的胸腺瘤都是潜在恶性的,在医学方面,我们主张将胸腺瘤分为非侵袭性和侵袭性两种,一般来说,胸腺瘤中只有30%~40%是具有侵袭性的。


Reading guide

Cancer is a common physical problem in people's body structure nowadays. There are many kinds of tumors that are not very well known in people's daily life. For example, the upper mediastinal tumor. Upper mediastinal tumor is a relatively common tumor, mainly in the chest, which is more common is thymoma. This has a great impact on people's physical condition. So what should we do when we suffer from the upper mediastinal tumor?

上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

1. What is a superior mediastinal tumor?

There are many forms of tumors on the upper mediastinum, but the most common one is thymoma.

Thymoma accounts for about 20%~40% of all mediastinal tumors in adults. Thymoma originates from thymic epithelium, but does not contain tumors derived from lymphocytes, neuroendocrine cells, germ cells and adipose tissue. Thymomas are mostly located in the anterior mediastinum and attach to the pericardium. Only a small number of thymomas can occur outside the mediastinum, such as pleura and pericardium.

上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

Two. Thymoma symptoms

1. About 30%-60% of the patients with thymoma have no obvious symptoms, but they have been found in accidental chest X-ray examination. The clinical manifestations of symptomatic patients are mainly local chest symptoms caused by tumor invasion or compression of adjacent mediastinal structures, including cough, chest pain, wheezing, recurrent respiratory tract infections, dyspnea, dysphagia, hoarseness and other symptoms. At the same time, systemic symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, night sweats, etc.

2. Thymoma has its unique manifestations and manifestations of multiple paraneoplastic syndrome: the most common is myasthenia gravis; red cell dysplasia; polymyositis; systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; thyroiditis and other diseases. Some studies have found that patients with thymoma are more likely to develop a second primary tumor than others.

上纵隔肿瘤 - Upper mediastinal tumor

Three. Note of thymoma

Thymoma differs from other tumors in that it is impossible to determine the benign and malignant nature of thymoma if it is based entirely on histology. Therefore, the benign and malignant nature of thymoma should be judged by the presence or absence of capsular infiltration, peripheral organ invasion or distant metastasis. At present, all thymomas are considered to be potentially malignant. In medicine, we advocate the classification of thymomas as as non-invasive and invasive. Generally speaking, only 30-40% of thymomas are invasive.